Nephrology and Hypertension Specialists Lake Success Nephrology and Hypertension Specialists Lake Success

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Kidney Stone Evaluation

Kidney stones are a common but painful urinary tract disorder that affects over 3 million people in the United States each year. A kidney stone is a hardened mass of mineral and acid salts that separates from the urine and travels through the urinary tract. The urine normally dilutes and dissolves these substances, but when the composition of urine is unbalanced, crystallized stones can form.

There are several different types of kidney stones made up of different components found in the urine. Some of the most common stones are made up of calcium, struvite, uric acid and cystine. But despite their composition, most kidney stones cause terrible pain as they move through the urinary tract and into the ureter. Common symptoms include:

  • Pain in the lower side and back
  • Pain radiating to the abdomen and groin
  • Bloody or cloudy urine
  • Painful urination
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever

Kidney stones can be identified by X-rays, CAT scan or Sonogram even when they do not form symptoms. Blood and urine tests may also be used to diagnose this condition. Pain medication may be given to relieve symptoms. Larger stones that cannot pass on their own may require more aggressive methods such as shock wave therapy or surgery. However, often the stone burden (number of stone formation) can decrease significantly by preventive measures; this may lead to a decrease in the number of surgical interventions required.


Anemia Management

Anemia is a condition that occurs when the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is lower than normal. The hemoglobin may be low due to a decrease in production of red blood cells or a loss of blood.

There are several different types of anemia, characterized by the cause of the low blood cell counts. These causes can include:

  • Iron deficiency
  • Vitamin deficiency
  • Associated with a chronic disease
  • Autoimmune diseases
  • Bone marrow disease
  • Genetics (hereditary)

Anemia is much more common in women, especially pregnant women. It also occurs frequently in older people, people with poor diets and those with diseases that can cause anemia.

The main symptom of anemia is fatigue. Other common symptoms include weakness, paleness, fast or irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, dizziness or headache. Symptoms may start out mild but worsen as the condition progresses.

A physical exam and series of blood tests, including a complete blood count, can confirm anemia. Treatment depends on the cause of the condition, but can include iron and vitamin supplements, blood transfusions, etc. While anemia can be a serious condition, it is often treatable with proper care. Your doctor can recommend the best treatment option for you.


Acute Kidney Injury / ARF

Acute renal failure (ARF), also known as acute kidney injury, refers to a sudden loss of kidney function as a result of an injury, infection or side effect of medication. ARF may occur due to a loss of blood flow to the kidneys, kidney damage or a blockage that prevents urine from flowing out of the kidneys. Although this condition can affect anyone, it is more common in older patients and those with kidney or liver disease, diabetes, high blood pressure or obesity.

Patients with advanced acute renal failure may experience symptoms such as:

  • Swelling
  • Lack of appetite
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Flank pain
  • Confusion or anxiety
  • Little to no urination

Treatment for ARF aims to restore kidney function and prevent waste from building up in the body. This can be done with dialysis, which is often administered for a few days or weeks before the kidneys can once again function on their own. Patients will likely need to make adjustments to their diet, and may also be prescribed antibiotics to prevent or treat infection.

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